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Timelines in journalism: A closer look

You’re not going to create one every week, but a timeline is a useful — and helpful — type of information graphic, and fairly common in journalism. When teaching students about timelines, here are some ideas to consider and discuss:

Chronology or timeline?

Sometimes a timeline is not a timeline, according to Len de Groot, a longtime graphics journalist. A timeline shows actual spans of time, with proportional measurements for decades, years, days or hours, depending on the total time involved. “The space between events should be as important [as] or more important than the events themselves,” he says. A chronology, on the other hand, shows the momentum of a series of events. It might be more effective if presented as a list, or as an illustrated slideshow.

Here’s an excellent chronology about Operation Odyssey Dawn on Libya, from El País:

Cronología: Operación Amanecer de la Odisea sobre Libia

Not what we think of when we imagine a timeline, is it? But it’s quite well suited to telling the story of recent events in Libya, and it is being updated day by day. (Navigate days via the two arrows at upper left.)

The Wall Street Journal has published a multi-line timeline covering recent events in Arab countries (below). Selecting any day loads a region map and summary of events for that day in an area above the timeline. I like the way this compact layout shows us at a glance where activities have occurred, and when. This is a very successful timeline graphic tailored closely to the story.

WSJ: Middle East Turmoil

Here are some questions we can ask before we sketch our timeline ideas:

  1. Is this a story about hours, days, years or decades?
  2. Should equal periods of time be represented with equal space? (Example: 100 pixels equals one year.)
  3. Are parallel time periods required? (Example: While this was happening in India, this was happening in China.)
  4. Does it make sense to combine the timeline with a map or a line graph?
  5. Should photos or other images be added to the timeline to help tell the story?
  6. How much text is necessary to make the story understandable — and satisfying?

A “timeline” that does not represent time proportionally to space — but which works well, I think, because it is straightforward and clear, is this one by graphic designer Sean Carton:

Sean Carton: Social Media Timeline

Design questions

Most timeline graphics present time in horizontal lines, with the oldest events to the left and more recent ones progressing to the right (I suppose we would do it right-to-left if we were Arab or Chinese). A notable and very recent exception is the Guardian’s brilliant (and vertical) Arab spring: An interactive timeline of Middle East protests (blogged about by Tracy Boyer last week).

Guardian.co.uk: Arab Spring timeline graphic

I think it’s useful to think about Len de Groot’s distinction between timelines and chronologies when admiring this graphic: Is this really a “timeline”? I don’t think so — has there ever been a better illustration of the momentum of events? No need to quibble over the words, though, when the execution is so effective.

Here are some questions we can ask as we examine our sketches of our timeline ideas:

  1. Will people like it?
  2. Is it helpful, easy to understand?
  3. Is it confusing?
  4. Hard to use?
  5. Does it add something that text alone would not convey?
  6. Does the graphic need to be a timeline — or would a regular slideshow (or map, or whatever) be equally effective?

One of the more successful interactive timelines is 10 years old — every time I revisit this package about Winston Churchill, I am amazed all over again at how well it works. Note in particular the double timeline at the bottom: The upper bar is Churchill’s life, and the lower bar shows concurrent world events.

Library of Congress: Churchill and the Great Republic

The Template Trap

Sometimes I think we fall into a “one size fits all” trap with templates or tools. You have a template or a tool, and you re-use it for various stories. But is that always the right decision? Does expediency sometimes defeat the goal of clear communication?

WSJ: Deepwater Horizon Rig Disaster

I think the Deepwater Horizon Rig Disaster timeline (above) is much more successful than the Biggest Volcanic Eruptions (below), which skimps on details about the eruptions. Both are from The Wall Street Journal.

WSJ: Biggest Volcanic Eruptions

Likewise, CNN’s Trapped Chilean Miners timeline (below) is better suited to its timeline interface than the recent Egyptian Protests timeline, which uses the same interface.

CNN: Trapped Chilean Miners

Timeline tools

TimelineSetter is a new, free tool from the great folks at Pro Publica, the nonprofit investigative journalism organization. It’s not available for mass consumption just yet (“We have some more code generalization and fixes we need to do before it’s ready to open source, but we plan to do so as soon as we can,” they said on March 22), but it might be useful in lots of different situations. Below is a timeline created with this tool.

Pro Publica: How One Blast Affected Five Soldiers

The functionality and the design are similar to the timeline template The New York Times has been using for some time; for a recent example, see Elizabeth Taylor: 1932-2011 (below). I found the checkbox options to be distracting and unnecessary.

New York Times: Elizabeth Taylor: 1932-2011

Other free timeline tools were described (and linked) in a post by Alex Gamela in May 2010. Dipity and SIMILE are fairly well known; others are less so, but it’s worthwhile to check out the different visual approaches to presenting information in this way.

Which of these tools produces the best result for the story you want to tell?

Do not create an interactive timeline just because it’s cool. Use interactivity to make the information more clear.

Two older timelines that are worth a look:

Update (Dec. 31, 2013): The new darling timeline tool is TimelineJS — free and open source!


Categories: design, examples, reporting, teaching


12 Comments

  1. Alex Gamela says:

    thank you so much for the link Mindy. these are great examples, and I showed a few of them in my multimedia classes. many of my students feel that timelines are an easy way to tell their stories, especially when combined with other features, like maps or video. fortunately there are many easy ways to build a timeline, but like the Guardian has shown us, there are also innovative ways to use them.

    thanks again.

  2. You are welcome, Alex. I think “easy” is good, but there is always the question: “Is it the BEST way, for THIS story?” :)

  3. Prezi is another tool that can be pressed into the service of making timelines. I built a couple of timeline templates for the presentation software and posted them on my blog. My intention was to create a resource, but to also show the potential for using prezi as a quick production tool for journalists.

  4. Here’s a very beautiful example from the BBC:

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/timelines/british/index.shtml

    British History in a timeline — hat tip to @lenagroeger on Twitter.

  5. [...] recent post by Mindy McAdams regarding timelines and their use in journalism had me wondering how I could put [...]

  6. Alex Gamela says:

    you’re right Mindy, sometimes i had a hard time making them realize that it wasn’t the best option :P still, in their efforts, i saw that there was an underlying logic that was replicated in different websites. for example,all the proposals for multimedia/interactive projects about the arab world crisis used timelines, and most of the stories published around the world used this same feature. but yes, that is THE question to ask everytime.

    thanks again.

  7. Steve says:

    What… no Dipity example?

    Here is the Washington Post Elizabeth Taylor Obit timeline:

    http://www.dipity.com/washingtonpost/Elizabeth-Taylor-1932-2011/

  8. Thanks for the link, Steve! And I DID include a Dipity example — History of the Wheel. It is linked above.

  9. Sean Carton says:

    Thanks for the link, Mindy! Great post (and I’d say that even if you didn’t link to my timeline!).

    One small correction: I’m really a writer, not a designer. However, I’m really flattered that you thought enough of my timeline to think I could pass for a designer! :)

    Sean

  10. Hi, Sean, and thanks for reading. I thought I had read your bio before I called you a designer. My mistake!

  11. [...] Timelines in journalism: A closer look (mindymcadams.com) [...]

  12. [...] In the spirit of ‘do what you do best and link to the rest’ I thought I would suggest checking out Mindy McAdams’s post, which provides an excellent overview of the [...]

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