Posted on November 3, 2013
Every week I read a lot of tweets and articles and blog posts about journalism. Every time I talk about the evolution of the field with journalism students, I see evidence that they are not keeping up.
So, a new experiment. Three articles, every Sunday, that I read this week. Three that are very different. Informative about, or pointing the way to, the future. Three, and only three.
Takeaways: Journalists need to know how to work with data, but they don’t have to reinvent the wheel. Tools like Chartbuilder and OpenStreetMap give you a big head start.
“We’re still babies at it”: BuzzFeed Video’s strategy … Journalists need to think (really think) abut why people share things, because social sharing is the main driver of news dissemination today. BuzzFeed is the exemplar for content sharing. Nieman Journalism Lab goes behind the scenes with Ze Frank, boss of video at BuzzFeed. (Online video ad revenues are growing, so some news organizations are ramping up video production to chase the ad dollars — but what if the audience does not flock to the videos?)
Takeaways: What does a video producer at BuzzFeed do? What does analysis of video sharing tell us?
NSA Files Decoded: What the revelations mean for you. This multimedia package from The Guardian — which broke the Edward Snowden story and has published many stories based on Snowden’s leaked materials — makes journalism history. Unlike previously released beautiful article designs in long scrolling formats, this time the subject of the story has worldwide and long-lasting significance. The NSA/Snowden is probably THE story of the decade, and this manner of presenting it demonstrates the range of skill sets needed in newsrooms in the 21st century.
Takeaways: Know what the NSA story means. Understand the diverse journalism skills behind making the videos and information graphics in this package.
Let me know what you think. Had you already seen all three of these? How many are new to you? Did they make you think? Did you learn something? Tell me via Twitter or Facebook or here, in the comments.
Posted on October 27, 2013
Friday I was visiting the Center for Collaborative Journalism, and I watched director Tim Regan-Porter teaching a class called Hacking the Media. In it, about 12 students were learning to do something with Ruby on Rails. Some of the students were journalism majors. Others were from engineering or technical communication. They told the visitors how the course was helping them learn to approach and solve problems (and not only problems of code) in new ways. The students were very positive and enthusiastic. Only four of them volunteered information, though, so we don’t know what the others think.
“Coding for journalists” might be the flavor of the day, the way “backpack journalism” was a few years ago. Emotions run hot over the question, with people inside and outside journalism digging their heels in and pulling for their side.
Here’s a summary of the ever-recurring conversation about whether journalists (or journalism students) should learn to code.
What Should Reporters Learn in Journalism School? This is the immensely useful follow-up to a less useful (in my opinion) article, Should Journalism Schools Require Reporters to ‘Learn Code’? No, by the same author, Olga Khazan, who is an editor at The Atlantic. The reason I prefer the “What Should Reporters Learn” article: It talks about statistics, scraping, numeracy, using the Web to generate story ideas quickly, understanding research studies (and which ones are junk), pitching stories (brilliant), and more. In other words, the article does not pull out the old trope “Journalists must learn to write,” and leave it at that. Favorite quote:
If I had one or two years of grad school to become an effective reporter, though, I would try to save time by making full use of the ready-made scraping tools geared toward non-programmers … (In this case, the “everyone needs a little bit of code” argument is flawed, too, since you can’t “little bit” scrape some data.)
Those required courses in journalism school are there for a reason. This article, by Khazan’s former journalism professor Robert Hernandez, talks about how undergraduates in general don’t know what they should know, and journalism schools have a responsibility to expose students to many things they might consider pointless or not related to their future career aspirations. Hernandez defines some terms related to “code” and makes a neat distinction between two types he calls “a modern journalist” and “a digital journalist.” Favorite quote:
While journalism saved my life, the web and technology gave me a direction. I’ve had an incredible career because I learned the power behind the phrase “Hello World.”
Late addition: In On journalism and learning to code (again), Knight-Mozilla OpenNews Fellow Noah Veltman addresses “a lot of fallacies about code and journalism” in Khazan’s first article (the one that says j-schools should not require student to learn code). Veltman has better chops than most of us, and right now he’s embedded with the BBC in London. Favorite quote:
If you think you can compartmentalize the “data” work and give it to someone else, or that you’re fine only reporting stories you can find browsing Excel, someone else is going to eat your lunch.
Should journalists learn to code? Hernandez was a major participant in this Twitter conversation, archived by me (although I hardly participated at all). If you’re tempted to have this discussion yourself, you could just read this first and save yourself some trouble. One of several favorite tweets:
Every 6 months the “should journalists learn to code” article is instant traffic/social media discussion. We’re being played. — David Cohn
What is ‘code,’ anyway?
What about scraping? There are tools out here that let you scrape without knowing how to code. Getting the job done is good. Not doing it with code? You can decide.
Break it down for a j-school curriculum
This is a series of posts I wrote earlier this year to differentiate among the things journalists talk about when they talk about “code.” The series was titled “Get started with Web coding.”
What do journalists need?
Answering this question is complicated, but let’s cut to the chase and admit that every journalist today must know how to do more than only write and interview people. Finding public records requires online search skills. Analyzing the claims made in science and health studies requires numeracy skills.
If you’re a great video storyteller, for example, you might never need to know any code. But how does a student in j-school know (really know) what path his or her career will follow? So many journalism students proclaim that they “can’t do math,” or say, “Computers don’t like me.” I hear these statements all the time, and that’s something the j-schools must — absolutely must — address.
Does code need to be part of that? I think it does. Learning how to learn to code (not rote memorization) encourages and empowers the kind of student who has been hiding behind an “I can’t do math” defensive shield.
Posted on September 7, 2013
About two months ago, I had to explain the concept and use of aggregation in online journalism to a group of journalists (mostly editors) in Vietnam. I found most of my material in this blog post by Steve Buttry — and in fact, much of what you need to know is in his headline: Link, attribute, add value.
To aggregate is to bring things together in one place, to gather a number of different items, to create a collection.
“Aggregation and curation are techniques of using content from other sources to provide content for your audience. They occupy overlapping spaces …” (Buttry)
Types of aggregation can be viewed as a continuum:
- Fully automated, no humans are selecting content (for example, Google search)
- Partly automated (for example, an RSS feed from one or mored selected sources)
- Only automated in a small way (for example, a reporter performs numerous Google searches to create a short list of links to useful resources)
- Not automated at all: Mainly uses human intelligence and judgment (for example, a reporter interviews several experts to compile a set of items culled from various sources) — this is more like curation
A couple of generalized examples from Buttry:
- “Original reporting supplemented by curation of some background content from your [newspaper’s] own archives”
- “Aggregation of data from public records, with value added by [the reporter’s] original analysis and/or reporting”
Is aggregation ethical?
You might ask: Why is this acceptable? How is it different from stealing, or violating copyright?
Aggregation can be done ethically if you follow these guidelines:
- Always link to the original source.
- Always include clear attribution (in addition to the link). For an example, see the first paragraph of this post.
- “Attribution helps consumers evaluate the reliability of information.” (Buttry)
- Always use quotation marks (as in the previous item) when you copy and paste someone else’s text.
- Add value to the material — add original reporting, updates, analysis (see examples below).
- Another way to add value is to summarize and/or compare reports from several other sources.
- Do not simply copy information, especially from unknown or unreliable sources.
- Part of the value that you add is that you are using only sources that you trust.
As a teacher, I realize that students do not know how to apply these ethical principles to aggregation — so this is now something we need to teach, explicitly, in the j-schools.
Here are three very different examples of aggregation, each produced by a journalism organization:
Giant panda at Zoo Atlanta gives birth to twins (The Washington Post). This photo gallery gives us an example that won’t seem at all strange to experienced journalists — it’s a collection of photos from various wire services. We can assume that The Washington Post has paid all appropriate fees and has the legal right to publish each of these photos online. (For students, we have to make the point that it’s not legal to grab photos from websites and compile a gallery — that would be breaking the law, as BuzzFeed recently learned.)
Interesting points about the panda gallery:
- Not a single photo was taken by a Washington Post photographer.
- The panda twins were born at the Atlanta zoo, not the National Zoo in Washington, D.C.
- Only ONE photo in the gallery shows the new panda cubs.
Timeline: Syria’s bloodiest days (BBC News). In this text-only example, the news organization is aggregating or curating from itself. Every event listed in this timeline includes a link to a past BBC story about that event. I would be inclined to label this example curation, because it represents a careful process of selection and culling.
11 disturbing things [Edward] Snowden has taught us (so far) (GlobalPost). The (considerable) value added in this example is in the summary of a long and complex story. Each point has a link to an original source. Seven of the 12 links go to The Guardian, which broke the story; there are five links to other original news reports about this case. We could probably have a long discussion about whether this story is too derivative of Guardian reporting — I would argue that the value of the summary, and the “consequence” written for each of the 11 points, more than justifies the right of GlobalPost to publish this.
Are you teaching journalism students how to aggregate and curate?
UPDATE (Sept. 8): Steve Buttry approves of this post.
Posted on May 7, 2013
For about three years, I have been using WordPress.com (a free blogging site) to create a syllabus for each one of my courses. I first tried it in 2007, and now I’m totally sold on the practice. (See two examples: graduate course; undergrad course.)
One of the best features for students: If you choose a WordPress theme that is mobile-ready, your students can very easily check their deadlines, assignments, etc., on their smartphones, from anywhere.
So how should you start? First, set up a free WordPress.com account. Everything you need to know is here: WordPress Basics.
You can always delete a WordPress.com blog — you can create and maintain multiple WordPress.com blogs under one single username. Your first blog can be a little testbed for you to get to know WordPress as a blogging platform, if you aren’t using it already. Then after you feel up to speed, launch a new blog and make that one your syllabus.
If you are using WordPress, there’s no reason to wait. Just launch a new blog before your next course begins, and set it up as the syllabus!
What to put on the ‘Pages’
Most WordPress themes make it easy for you to show the titles of “Pages” as big navigation buttons on every page of the blog. I’ve settled on a standard short list of Pages, based on some standard sections of a traditional syllabus.
About This Course: Key details at the top, such as the room number, meeting times, and contact info for the instructor. Those are followed by an informal description of the course (longer than the university catalog description) and reasons why a student might want to take it.
Course Schedule: This is the page that students will be checking all the time during the semester. It includes the day and dates for all class meetings, all deadlines, assigned readings, etc. However (and I feel this is very important), it does not include details about any of the work. It has an outline format and large headings for each week, making it very easy for students to use.
Required Work: For me, this is a really important part of the package, because it bridges between the skeletal Course Schedule page and the full-fledged descriptions of assignments, which will be posted on a weekly basis after the course gets under way. The Required Work page lays out the percentages or points for all assignments and provides a rationale for each type of assignment (e.g., blog posts, presentations).
Syllabus: Standard boilerplate items that do not change much, or at all, from year to year, such as the course description, attendance policies, honor code and accommodations for students with disabilities.
I’m sure for various kinds of courses, the instructor might want to add or subtract pages from this list. The way you organize it is quite important — you’ve got to be thinking about how students use documents and text. Not many of them are going to read everything!
What to put in the sidebar(s)
The Search box should be at the very top — typically on the far right side. Find it in the WordPress Widgets list, in the Dashboard list under “Appearance.”
A “subscribe by email” link is very helpful to some students (although not all will use it). Also in the Widgets list — “Follow Blog.” I always put this immediately below the Search box.
Sidebar links in WordPress default to one category: “Blogroll.” But you can change that (Dashboard > Links > Link Categories). I like to provide separate categories for links that are:
- Specific to this particular course
- Recommended, or generally useful for students who would take this course
- Specific to our department, college and/or university
For a class in which students keep their own individual blogs, I use RSS (see Widgets) to display each student’s most recent post in the sidebar.
What to put in the footer
Most students will not look at the footer, so don’t put anything vital there.
How to post assignments
Most students like a predictable structure in their courses, so I make it clear to them which day of the week they can expect to see a new post on the course blog. Usually I say Monday, but I post on Sunday night. If I post anything on another day, it should be optional.
Most posts are specifically related to one single assignment. If there are a lot of details, I use subheadings and bullet lists. WordPress makes it easy to post links to resources, and I also like that students can ask questions directly on the assignment post, by leaving a comment. If students are creating something that can be linked to, you can require them to post their link in a comment on the assignment post.
With careful use of WordPress categories, you can make it easy for students to promptly find the latest assignment even if you are adding other kinds of posts as well.
How to use categories effectively
The categories for “Posts” are different from the categories for “Links.” You can easily set up a few key categories (Dashboard > Posts > Categories) such as:
- Assignments (my most-used category in every syllabus blog)
- Recommended (or, Resources)
- In the News
I think it’s sensible to limit the number of categories to the minimum you can tolerate. It doesn’t help anyone to have lots of categories that each have only one or two items. You can always add unlimited tags (such as topic names) to any post.
What to print for the first class
If the class meets in a computer lab, I can condense the printed document down to one page, providing my contact information, the URL of the course blog, and a few other details. We can go over the full syllabus online during the class.
If the class meets in a regular classroom, I will hand out a four-page version on the first day, and that will include a brief version of the Course Schedule and Required Work pages. It also includes my contact information and the URL of the course.
Posted on April 28, 2013
In non-TV news organizations today, we see mostly one of two choices for video (or both of these):
- iPhone (more than any other phone or small device)
- DSLR (various models)
All the smaller video cams seem to have fallen out of favor. Only TV and feature-length documentary makers use high-end video cameras.
What does this mean for teaching in j-schools? Some great minds in multimedia journalism education have been discussing that on the Facebook group “ONA Educators,” in response to a question posted on April 25, 2013. With permission of those named, here is what they said.
First, the question — which came from a journalism instructor who prefers not to be named, and who uses “flipcams” to introduce video in a basic multimedia journalism course at a U.S. university:
We’re on the video portion of our Multimedia Journalism class (we did audio and photography earlier in the semester). So far the students have learned:
- How to operate a flipcam and small tripod and pay attention to sound/background noise and lighting. The five-shot method.
- The basics of interviewing: Asking non-yes/no questions, not staging scenes, etc.
- Keeping the camera steady and shooting from different angles and perspectives for more visual interest
- Basics of iMovie: Editing shots down to ~5 seconds each, using sequencing to tell the story, voiceover technique (separating audio/video), background noise reduction, lower thirds titles
Are there any video skills you’d add to this list for beginning multimedia journalists?
The term flipcams can refer to the Flip brand (discontinued in 2011) or any other very small, simple-to-operate video cameras, usually priced around $100 (U.S.). In professional newswork, these have been replaced by iPhones or other mobile phones with HD video capability. While flipcams were an easy buy for many j-schools, high-end smartphones carry much higher price tags.
Robert Quigley, who teaches at the University of Texas, answered:
- Teach them how to shoot steady video when no tripod is available (lean against a wall, set camera on a ledge, etc.)
- Rule of thirds.
- Basics of three-point lighting, using natural light.
- Basics of Final Cut.
- Importance of B-roll (shoot at least 6 minutes of footage for every 1 minute used is the rule of thumb I use).
- Make the videos entertaining — look for the fun in life. News videos tend to be boring. No people sitting in their offices!
- Keep videos under 2 minutes. Aim for 60 seconds. If they edit themselves hard, it will be a better video.
- No fancy transitions/special effects should be used.
- Get names spelled correctly and identify people.
Let’s break out some categories from what we have so far:
- How to shoot (how to hold the camera; getting B-roll; five-shot method); composition (rule of thirds)
- Studio techniques or setting up controlled shoots, such as some interviews (lighting)
- Editing software and editing techniques (Final Cut; length of final video; avoid transitions; lower thirds)
- Reporting practices (get names and other identifying info from all subjects; interviewing on camera)
Quigley also recommended videos from EveryNone to show the importance of audio (one example: “Play it with the sound off for 20 seconds or so first, then turn on the sound and start it again,” Quigley wrote.)
Curt Chandler, who teaches at Penn State, wrote:
We don’t use flipcams. The students shoot with DSLRs, Canon Vixias, JVC broadcast cameras and sometimes with smartphones. We stopped being device specific a while ago. We talk about outcomes and what gear it will take to produce that outcome, then support the students on whatever they choose to shoot with. I do a lot of pass/fail grading early on to encourage experimentation. Once the students and I are agreed on what quality I am looking for on a type of story — and what it takes to produce that — then grades appear.
So much good there!
Chandler said his students learn both breaking news and higher-end Web video/multimedia. Although he doesn’t explicitly discourage students attempting higher-end video with smartphones, he said, “during class critiques I’m pretty candid about comparing results for produced stories shot with high-end tools and the same type of story shot on the fly. The iPhone gallery on Vimeo shows it can be done, but only in a limited set of circumstances.”
And: “After a point, it’s easier to work with the more complex — and controllable — tools,” Chandler concluded.
Closeups! More closeups! Not only because detail is more interesting than wide/medium shots, but today more than likely, folks are viewing video on smaller screens (i.e., mobile phones).
Start video shooting by ignoring the zoom rocker/lever. Keep the lens completely zoomed out. Hold each shot for 10 seconds.
Lih’s students start with consumer camcorders (Canon HF-R100 or R300) with mic inputs, “so we can use external mics. This teaches [students] ‘nightly news’–style pieces where they can use a lavalier or stick mic. Also camcorders can get real close for macro shooting. Then we branch out to both lower and higher fidelity,” Lih wrote.
Two assignments Lih shared:
- Shoot a piece entirely on your iPhone, Android phone or a point-and-shoot camera as a “web video.” Just to get the experience of shooting with what you have on your person. See here for an example of a piece I shot entirely on a Samsung Galaxy Camera. I teach students that getting close to the subject is not only more compelling video, it gets better audio pickup. Win-win. [The video uses WebM, so you need either Chrome or Firefox to view it.]
- Shoot a piece using a DSLR, having to go into manual focus mode. Gives students that third dimension of depth-of-field blur and rack focus. This is a real eye-opener for students, but they quickly realize the shortcomings audio-wise, and that it may not be ideal for deadline reporting.
Here’s a student example from the second assignment:
Allissa Richardson teaches a mobile journalism class at Bowie State University. She wrote:
I add a locative element. Be sure to include some instruction on how to geotag a video, and how journalists can create/use mapping through apps like Meograph to add more dimensions to video reports.
This opens a whole other area for instruction — shooting and editing video in the field using only a phone. In a recent conversation with Richardson, I was reminded that up to four iPod Touch devices can be tethered to one iPhone for uploads (Settings > General > Cellular > Set Up Personal Hotspot) — note that not all U.S. phone plans include this feature. Read more about Personal Hotspot on the iPhone.
There are so many situations when knowing how to get best results with video on a phone camera will pay off. I’m thinking every j-student needs to learn how to do it.
Getting Better Audio for Video
Finally, the discussion included some specific references to audio. The clear advantage of both consumer video cameras and the higher-end models favored by documentary videographers is the ability of such cameras to easily accept microphone inputs and record good-quality audio in sync with video. Using an external mic is a must for all cameras; monitoring the audio signal with headphones is strongly recommended.
Both DSLRs and smartphones have been notorious for recording poor-quality audio without an external mic.
Syncing is fairly easy in Final Cut X, as long as one of the audio inputs doesn’t have a lot of background noise. DSLRs made in the last six months have headphone jacks and sound level meters, so audio as the Achilles heel of DSLR video won’t be a factor much longer.
We run a shotgun or a lav mic into the Zoom and get good results. The mics on the Zoom are fine, if the recorder is close to the subject. But to get it close enough, it ends up in the picture, so we usually end up using a lav and putting the recorder out of sight in the subject’s pocket.
If Rode ever delivers the smartLav mic to distributors, then you’ll be able to use a smartphone as a .wav recorder that can be placed on the subject.
Lih noted: “On most DSLRs you cannot monitor the audio being recorded from the tiny mic on the camera body. A big problem. Also, some [older] DSLRs have limits on how many minutes can be recorded uninterrupted.”
Video Editing Software (Quick Notes)
On the iPhone: the Voddio app, from VeriCorder.
On the desktop/laptop:
- Final Cut Pro X: Easier to learn, teach, than Final Cut Pro 7, but disliked by editors who work in a team environment, including TV newsrooms.
- Adobe Premiere: Now experiencing a big comeback because of the teamwork production issues in Final Cut Pro X. A number of j-schools have switched or are considering switching from Final Cut to Premiere for this reason.
There are other video editing programs, but these are the only ones that I hear being discussed today in the Web video arena. I recommend using iMovie in an introductory multimedia course that teaches a number of other things in addition to video — especially if the students have their own MacBooks — in part because you can teach it in about 15 minutes. If I had sufficient time in the course, or if it’s a video-only course, I would certainly teach Final Cut or Premiere.